Thursday, June 25, 2015

Why Thutmose III can be ‘King Shishak of Egypt’

by
 Damien F. Mackey
 
 
Egyptologists believe that pharaoh Thutmose III had,
in his ‘First Campaign’ against the ‘king of Kadesh’, in the C15th BC,
assaulted the strong fort of Megiddo in northern Israel.
Dr. Immanuel Velikovsky, however, in his Ages in Chaos
(I), whilst accepting that Megiddo was the pharaoh’s target here, had lowered
these dates by 500 years, to the C10th BC.
For Velikovsky, Egypt’s foe was king Rehoboam, and
Kadesh, the “Holy”, was Jerusalem.
And Thutmose III was the biblical “Shishak king of Egypt” (I Kings 14:25).
My own view is that Megiddo could not have been the
location arrived at by the Egyptians – though I would accept Velikovsky’s
dating of Thutmose III.
So, what is the preferential geography for this ‘First Campaign’?
And was “Kadesh” indeed Jerusalem? Or was it some other location?
 
 
 
To read complete article, go to:
https://www.academia.edu/13297979/Why_Thutmose_III_can_be_King

Wednesday, April 10, 2013

"Now when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon" (I Kings 10:1).

 


  • Description. "Now when the queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon" (I Kings 10:1).
     
    This famous Queen of the Old Testament is also spoken of by Jesus Christ himself (Luke 11:29-32).

    Following Dr. Immanuel Velikovsky, in Ages in Chaos I (though with significant modifications), we identify the biblical 'Queen of the South' with Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt's 18th dynasty.

    {This site has now overflowed into: http://queensouthhatshesput.wordpress.com/}

    Wednesday, December 19, 2012

    Was Hatshepsut (Sheba) A Pharaoh When She Visited King Solomon’s Jerusalem?



    by

    Damien F. Mackey

     
    So proposes Adam Stuart, who has written:
     
    ….
     
    I wrote earlier that it seems very improbable that Hatshepsut would have visited Solomon at any time before she became king, unless it were to visit her sister Neferbity/Nefrubity if that sister were the daughter of pharaoh who was married to Solomon (royalty sometimes visit each other, but do the chronological details of Neferbity’s life allow for this?). But if this were the case, then I would think that the Bible would have mentioned the relationship between the Queen of Sheba and pharaoh’s daughter, which it does not. It says that the Queen of Sheba came to prove Solomon with hard questions. It does not say that the Queen of Sheba came to visit pharaoh’s daughter, Solomon’s Egyptian wife.

     
    * * *
     
    Disregarding how the biblical scribes might have referred to the phenomenon of a female king – {both “king” (melech) and “pharaoh” (pharoh) being used in the Bible for Egyptian monarchs} - I intend to argue here that the Old and New Testaments call Solomon’s guest “queen” simply because that is what she was at the time of her visit to Jerusalem. Needless to say, there is a big difference between a Queen and a Pharaoh.

    So I would date her visit earlier than Stuart does, and place it – as according to Hyam Maccoby (SIS Review IV:4, 'The Queen of Sheba and the Song of Songs') and Dr. Ed Metzler (Conflict of Laws in the Israelite Dynasty of Egypt, http://moziani.tripod.com/dynasty/ammm_2_1.htm - in the context of a marriage. Hence the phenomenal gifts (dowry), as opposed to the mean presents of the Punt expedition.

    What the queen had seen in Jerusalem had truly stunned her: the glory of king Solomon and his palace; the Temple and its liturgies; and the magnificent fleet. She wanted the same for her own land of Egypt, after she had returned. Ed Metzler (his is a must read article) takes this verb as implying a divorce.
    Metzler, n. 52:

    "On their divorce cf. Ed Metzler, Discovering Mosaistics (N. 1) pp. 175 and 182–3. The word “divorce” (Latin divortium) derives from divertere “to turn away”, and thus the story about the Queen of Sheba ends by saying that “she turned”, and went away to her own land (1. Kings 10, 13 and 2. Chronicles 9, 12). The insertion of the two preceding verses (as e. g. Genesis 38 in the story of Joseph) indicates that a period of time, maybe 10 years, elapsed".


    All purely political, of course

    Meanwhile she had had a child with Solomon, little Neferure, so beloved of Solomon (as Senenmut). But, though she was Solomon’s favourite wife, she had not provided him with the requisite male heir. That was achieved by Rehoboam’s mother, an Ammonite named Naamah.

    Velikovskian Metzler has marvellously reconstructed the 18th dynasty in its relation to Israel. King David, he tells, was the biblical “pharaoh” who sacked Gezer, Thutmose I (this accords with Bimson’s stratigraphy, too). David was not yet king of Israel. Saul was. Saul married Ahinoam, the daughter of Ahimaaz (I Samuel 14:50), that is, Ahhotep daughter of Ahmose according to Metzler. Saul was pharaoh Amenhotep I, un-related to Thutmose I (except by marriage), with whom he may have shared a brief co-regency.

    Thus, whilst Velikovsky had rightly discerned that Israel’s monarchy had arisen contemporaneously with the 18th dynasty, Metzler took it all that important step further. Israel’s monarchy was the early 18th Dynasty.

    The Thutmosids were therefore Davidides:
    Thutmose I was David.
    Hatshepsut was the daughter of Thutmose I (he crowned her Maat-ka-re in a three phase ceremony that followed the very pattern of Solomon’s coronation by David. See my “Solomon and Sheba” (in C and CR 1997:1, pp. 4-15).
    Thutmose II was Solomon (= Senenmut), husband of Hatshepsut.
    Thutmose III was Solomon’s son by a concubine.

    Hatshepsut famously shared the bed of Thutmose I, II and III (perhaps)

    - with Thutmose I (as the virginal beauty, Abishag);
    - with Thutmose II (as Queen Sheba):
    - with Thutmose III perhaps (as Hatshepsut II, mother of Amenhotep II).

    For when she returned from Jerusalem, she may have married Thutmose III.
    Was it then that she became pharaoh?

    As US theologian Dr. Scott Hahn has written, the Davidide dynasty was meant by Yahweh to become ‘a Torah to the nations’ (A Father who keep his promises). And I have shown at some length in my “Solomon and Sheba” article that Davidic and Solomonic wisdom (even love poetry) poured into Egypt at the time of Hatshepsut. Did not Hatshepsut even speak of Karnak in Davidic terms and sought to make it just as Jerusalem was? (Not sure of the Yahwistic theology in all of this).
    Punt

    The Punt expedition, which Hatshepsut did not accompany as has been well noted, was for the purpose of acquiring rare incense plants for her (Solomonic) temple at Deir el-Bahri. The campaign was led by Nehesi, who I think may have been Thutmose III himself – who was also the architect Djehuti (= Thutmose) for her temple. Thutmose III is conventionally placed right in the background on these occasions. But he may well have actually been right at the forefront.
    Did he have some Nubian blood in his veins?

    I think that the tri-partite empire at this time saw Solomon in Syro-Palestine; Hatshepsut in Egypt; and Thutmose III in Nubia. All kings!

    But Hatshepsut and Thutmose III had previously lived in Israel (she in Shunem).

    The virginal Abishag I have argued was the virginal Tamar (Maat [ka] ra), Absalom’s sister, raped by Amnon while she was still in the care of the aged King David. See: http://hatshepsut-amaic.blogspot.com.au/2011/04/rape-of-tamar-further-perspectives-on.html
    Absalom, brother of Solomon – and early obelisk builder – was probably Senimen, the brother of Senenmut (see: http://amaickingdavid.blog.com/2011/10/03/70/)

    After the rape episode, Tamar became for a time a virtual prisoner in Absalom’s charge This is the whole tension of the Song of Solomon, with the frustrated young Solomon (no doubt espoused to her, hence the Gezer dowry episode), trying to peep in at her – she being so roughly treated by her contemptuous brothers - when once the young pair had played in a paradise-like Israel.

    Later, after the demise of Absalom, Solomon and Abishag (can this strange name be harmonised with Hatshepsut?) would marry, as the Song progresses to a wedding.

    To have Abishag was apparently to have the kingdom. Thus I Kings 2:
    (13) Now Adonijah the son of Haggith came to Bathsheba the mother of Solomon. And she said, “Do you come peacefully?” And he said, “Peacefully.”

    (14) Then he said, “I have something to say to you.” And she said, “Speak.”

    (15) So he said, “You know that the kingdom was mine and that all Israel expected me to be king; however, the kingdom has turned about and become my brother's, for it was his from the Lord.

    (16) “Now I am making one request of you; do not refuse me. And she said to him, “Speak.”

    (17) Then he said, “Please speak to Solomon the king, for he will not refuse you, that he may give me Abishag the Shunammite as a wife.”

    (18) Bathsheba said, “Very well; I will speak to the king for you.”

    (19) So Bathsheba went to King Solomon to speak to him for Adonijah. And the king arose to meet her, bowed before her, and sat on his throne; then he had a throne set for the king's mother, and she sat on his right,

    (20) Then she said, “I am making one small request of you; do not refuse me.” And the king said to her, “Ask, my mother, for I will not refuse you,”

    (21) So she said, “Let Abishag the Shunammite be given to Adonijah your brother as a wife.”

    (22) King Solomon answered and said to his mother, “And why are you asking Abishag the Shunammite for Adonijah? Ask for him also the kingdom-for he is my older brother-even for him, for Abiathar the priest, and for Joab the son of Zeruiah!”

    (23) Then King Solomon swore by the Lord, saying, “May God do so to me and more also, if Adonijah has not spoken this word against his own life.

    (24) “Now therefore, as the Lord lives, who has established me and set me on the throne of David my father and who has made me a house as He promised, surely Adonijah shall be put to death today.”

    (25) So King Solomon sent Benaiah the son of Jehoiada; and he fell upon him so that he died.


    The girl seems to have had precedence over even Solomon himself. Does not Senenmut (Solomon) tell us: "I was in this land [Egypt] under her command since the occurrence of the death of her predecessor..." http://www.specialtyinterests.net/alternate.html

    A Note on the Name, ‘Shishak”
    One probably does not need to exhaust Thutmose III’s titulary seeking for the name “Shishak” as revisionists have done so diligently. It was probably the name by which he was known in Jerusalem. For there was also a Shisha in King Solomon’s court: 1 Kings 4:3: “Elihoreph and Ahiah, the sons of Shisha, scribes …”.



    Christmas 2012.





    Wednesday, December 12, 2012

    Textbook History Out of Kilter With Era of King Solomon By 500 Years




    Dr. John Bimson’s important article, “Hatshepsut and the Queen of Sheba: A Critique of Velikovsky’s Identification and an Alternative View” (C and C Review, Vol. VIII, 1986), exposed as untenable, in the eyes of many revisionists, Velikovsky’s identification of Hatshepsut with the biblical Queen of Sheba. This was due to a series of strong arguments against Velikovsky’s reconstruction – some of these being irrefutable. Amongst the most telling of Bimson’s points were those that pertained to the famous Punt expedition, that Velikovsky had attempted to identify with the biblical visit by the Queen of the South to King Solomon in Jerusalem. Not only was Hatshepsut no longer a queen by the time of the Punt expedition – {she was actually in her Year 9 as pharaoh (king)} – but it appears from the Deir el-Bahri inscriptions that she did not actually accompany the Egyptian expedition to the land of Punt. The biblical queen, on the other hand, had most definitely visited King Solomon at Jerusalem in person.
    What Bimson still shared with Velikovsky (at least in 1986), however, was the conviction that Hatshepsut was contemporaneous with the (approximate) era of King Solomon. Revisionists do not necessarily take that view anymore. And therein lies a problem. Because Hatshepsut, as queen, is still the outstanding candidate for the biblical “Queen of Sheba (of the South)”, given the testimony of Josephus that the biblical queen had ruled Egypt and Ethiopia, and given the likeness of her throne name, Maat-ka-re (Makera) to the queen’s legendary name, Makeda.
    Bimson scrapped Hatshepsut as a candidate, but failed to provide any other contemporaneous woman ruler to represent this famous queen to whom both the Old and New Testaments attest. The same comment applies to Patrick Clarke in his more recent criticism of Velikovsky on the subject: ‘Why Pharaoh Hatshepsut is not to be equated to the Queen of Sheba’ (Journal of Creation, 24/2, August 2010, pp. 62-68).
    And the same applies again to those whose new chronologies do not align the early (undivided) monarchy of Israel with the early 18th dynasty of Egypt: a downward time shift of about 500 years. Now I don’t know if Eric [Aitchison] has himself come up with any candidate for the celebrated biblical queen, but I presume that he, with his “Damien likes moving things by 500 years but my preference remains at 630 years”, cannot possibly accommodate Hatshepsut in this his singular rearrangement of time.
    With Hatshepsut gone, then Thutmose III as the biblical “King Shishak of Egypt” must also go. Patrick Clarke, for instance, has rejected this equation in his ‘Was Thutmose III the biblical Shishak? – Claims of the ‘Jerusalem’ bas-relief at Karnak investigated’ (Journal of Creation, 25/1, April 2011, pp. 48-56). Two important pillars of the revision thus toppled. But, again, what is the alternative? So far, Clarke has not provided any candidate of his own. And, as for those who would prefer Ramesses II ‘the Great’ as “Shishak”, well they are running into the formidable problem as pointed out by Dale Murphie: “Critique of David Rohl’s A Test Of Time (SIS C&C Review, Oct 1997:1), with Ramesses II having the powerful king Asa of Judah (in all his strength) sandwiched right between himself and his Hittite ally, Hattusilis.
     
    Damien F. Mackey.

    Monday, December 10, 2012

    Was Balamon in the Book of Judith the Baal Hamon in Song of Songs?

    
     
     

    ....

    Continuing in Song 8:11-12, we note that these two verses clearly go together (each mentioning Solomon, vineyard, thousand and fruit), though there is dispute as to who is speaking and what is truly being portrayed. Solomon, we are told in verse 11, had a vineyard in Baal Hamon, a name otherwise unknown. In verse 12, Solomon is addressed and mention is made of "my own vineyard." How are we to take these verses?literally or figuratively? And why are they here? As with verses 8-10, this segment that follows seems at first glance to come out of the blue. Yet considering the reflection we have already noted?and the symmetry between this closing section of the Song (8:5-14) and the opening section (1:1?2:7), it is natural and appropriate to look for more of the same.
    Solomon, we should note, is mentioned twice here (8:11-12) and also twice in the opening section (1:1, 5)?both these positions being exactly opposite to three mentions of his name in the central section of the Song concerning the apparent wedding procession (3:7, 9, 11). The word translated "keepers" or "those who tend" (8:11-12), thus appearing twice here in this segment, occurs elsewhere in the Song only in the opening section?in that case also appearing two times together as "keeper" and "kept" (1:6). This former instance is part of the segment that also mentions Solomon (1:5-6). Furthermore, it should be recognized that the word "vineyards" and then "my own vineyard" at the end of 1:6 parallels the two mentions of "vineyard" in 8:11 and "my own vineyard" in 8:12. On top of this, we should observe that 1:6 is also the verse that mentioned the Shulamite's brothers assigning her work?parallel to their authority over her we have already noted in 8:8-9. All of this very strongly indicates that 8:8-12 should all be taken together?as parallel to 1:5-6.
    This can help us to understand what is going on in 8:11-12. In 1:6, the girl was sent by her brothers to work in the sun in literal vineyards?and this prevented her from devoting as much energies as she would have liked to her own personal vineyard, a figurative reference to her own person (her appearance being at issue here). This gives us good reason to see the vineyard of 8:11 literally and the personal vineyard of verse 12 as a figurative reference to the speaker's person. Indeed the vineyard of verse 11, in this parallel, would seem to be one that the girl was sent to work in?followed by reference to her own person in the vineyard of verse 12. However, the related wording between verses 11 and 12 indicate that the vineyard in verse 11 is to be understood figuratively on some level, as we will see. Thus it may be that a literal situation in verse 11 is being used in a symbolic manner.
    A literal interpretation of the vineyard in verse 11 most naturally implies a literal interpretation of Solomon here as well. It does not follow that a poor shepherd or even an average citizen would have a great vineyard leased to keepers who were to bring a return of 1,000 silver coins for the fruit sold. The lord of this vineyard would be a wealthy individual, and King Solomon makes a great deal of sense in that light. Solomon is the likely author of Ecclesiastes, and the writer of that book lists among his great works the planting of vineyards and the making of gardens and orchards with pools and all kinds of fruit trees (2:4-7). That Israelite kings had a penchant for possessing vineyards is also evident in the story of Ahab's desire for Naboth's vineyard in 1 Kings 21. We may also note David's appointment of officials to oversee vineyards and wine production, evidently to supply state needs (1 Chronicles 27:27). Solomon's administration was surely no different in this. So it may well be (putting the whole story together in Song 1:5-6 and 8:8-12) that the king placed one of his vineyards into the care of the Shulamite's brothers and that they delegated some responsibilities to her.
    In this scenario, Baal Hamon in verse 11 would be a literal place?though it is probably also a figurative reference. On the literal side, we should note that even though "Baal-hamon" is not specifically attested to elsewhere, there are other geographic names in Scripture beginning with Baal?for example, Baal-hermon, Baal-meon, Baal-peor, Baal-perazim, Baal-hazor. Some see a resemblance to a place mentioned in the Apocrypha, which is written in Greek: "As pointed out by a number of commentators, Judith 8:3 mentions a place called Balamon, possibly a Greek equivalent to Baal-hamon, which is near Dothan. In this regard, it is interesting that the Septuagint translates the Song of Songs' reference as Beelamon" (New International Commentary on the Old Testament, p. 219, note on Song 8:11). This is the same as "Khirbet Balama, modern Ibleam...about a mile south-west of Janin [in the northern West Bank]....

    ....

    Wednesday, November 28, 2012

    Trove subject: "Hatshepsut"

    


    Taken from: http://trove.nla.gov.au/result?q=%22Hatshepsut%22


    Books

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    1. Hatshepsut : the first woman pharaoh / Susanna Thomas
      Thomas, Susanna
      [ Book : 2003 ]
      Keywords: Hatshepsut Queen of Egypt; Pharaohs - Biography - Juvenile literature.; Egypt - History - Eighteenth dynasty, ca. 1570-1320 B.C - Juvenile literature.

      At University of Sydney
      Hatshepsut : the first woman pharaoh / Susanna Thomas
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      This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 38.445)
    2. Hatshepsut
      Wells, Evelyn
      [ Book : 1969 ]
      Keywords: Hatshepsut Queen of Egypt.
      At 4 libraries
      This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 27.067)
      This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 27.067)
    3. National Geographic world history biographies : Hatshepsut
      Galford, Ellen
      [ Book : 2005 ]
      Keywords: Hatshepsut Queen of Egypt; Queens - Egypt - Biography - Juvenile literature.; Egypt - Social life and customs - To 332 B.C - Juvenile literature.
      ... Birth of a princess -- Baby Hatshepsut -- A 4,000-year history -- A royal family -- Gods ...

      At 15 libraries
      National Geographic world history biographies : Hatshepsut
      This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 26.978)
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    4. Hatshepsut
      Evelyn Wells
      [ Book : 1969 ]
      Keywords: Hatshepsut, Queen of Egypt
      Read online at Open Library/Internet Archive
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    1. Hatshepsut
      The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
      [ Article : 2000 ]
      Keywords: Hatshepsut, Pharaoh of Egypt -- Biography; General interest
      ... Hatshepsut, d. 1468 B.C., queen of ancient Egypt, of the XVIII dynasty; daughter of Thutmose I ...
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      This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 23.554)
      This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 23.554)
    2. Hatshepsut (1540 B.C.-c. 1481 B.C.).(Narrative biography)
      Encyclopedia of World Biography
      [ Article : 1998 ]
      Keywords: Hatshepsut, Pharaoh of Egypt; General interest
      ... D. M. Dixon BIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY Hatshepsut (1540-1481 BC) was an Egyptian queen ...
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    3. Hatshepsut. (poem)
      Whitman, Ruth
      Ms. Magazine
      [ Article : 5 versions : 1991-1995 ]
      Keywords: Poetry; Literature/writing; Women's issues/gender studies
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    4. Hatshepsut: The Lost Pharaoh of Egypt [Book Review]
      Kingdon, Renee
      Bookseller + Publisher Magazine
      [ Article : 1116-2011 ]
      Keywords: History; Juvenile works; Hatshepsut, Queen of Egypt
      ... Review(s) of: Hatshepsut: The Lost Pharaoh of Egypt, by Carole Wilkinson, Black Dog Books, $14.99 ...
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    1. Hatshepsut : the Queen who would be king / produced and directed by Peter Spry-Leverton
      Discovery Channel School
      [ Video : 3 versions : 2003-2004 ]
      Keywords: Hatshepsut Queen of Egypt.; Pharaohs - Egypt - Biography.; Egypt - History - Eighteenth dynasty, ca. 1570-1320 B.C.
      ... to her dead husband's throne, Queen Hatshepsut did the unthinkable and declared herself king. Learn how she ...
      At 2 libraries
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      This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 12.744)
    2. Hatshepsut : the lost pharaoh of Egypt / by Carole Wilkinson
      Wilkinson, Carole, 1950-
      [ Audio book, Book : 5 versions : 2008 ]
      Keywords: Hatshepsut Queen of Egypt; Talking books for children.; Pharaohs - Juvenile literature.
      ... Complete and unabridged. For children. Hatshepsut was just a girl - but when ...

      At University of Sydney
      Hatshepsut : the lost pharaoh of Egypt / by Carole Wilkinson
      This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 5.215)
      This resource is very relevant to your query (score: 5.215)
    3. Great Egyptians : Hatshepsut : The Queen who would be king / produced and directed by Peter Spry-Leverton
      Discovery Channel School
      [ Video : 2004 ]
      Keywords: Hatshepsut Queen of Egypt; Queens - Egypt - Biography.; Egypt - History - Eighteenth dynasty, ca. 1570-1320 B.C.
      ... to her dead husband's throne, Queen Hatshepsut did the unthinkable and declared herself king. Learn how she ...
      At Cairns Libraries
      This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.937)
      This resource is likely to be relevant to your query (score: 0.937)
    4. Egypt Says Mummy of Ancient Queen Identified.(15:00-16:00 PM)(Hatshepsut, Queen of Egypt)(Interview)(Broadcast transcript)(Audio file)
      Talk of the Nation
      [ Sound : 2007 ]
      Keywords: Pharaohs -- History; Technology application; Mummies -- Discovery and exploration
      ... and a recently discovered tooth positively identified a mummy as that of Hatshepsut, one of the few female pharaohs who ...
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    Friday, November 16, 2012

    Moslems Claim to Find Name of Mohammed in Song of Songs


    Muhammad mentioned by name in the Song of Solomon 5:16?

    

    [Professor Lewis was asked to reply to this claim in a popular Muslim propaganda video (available, e.g., here) and gave permission to quote his informal email response on our website.]
     
    Dear Eman,
     
    The Muslim attempt to find "Muhammad" by name in the Song of Solomon 5:16 is a prime example of eisegesis, of reading something entirely out of context into a verse of the Bible.
    The Song of Solomon contains beautiful and sensuous poetry expressing romantic love between a young man (a shepherd 1:7) and.a young woman (a shepherdess 1:8). A key theme is that marriage is a gift from God to be founded on commitment and loyalty.
    The young lady is describing her husband's body in 5:10-16. Is it likely that while enamored of her husband, she would suddenly speak of another man in verse 16?
    Even if some Jewish pronunciations of one of the Hebrew words sounded something like "Muhammed," that is irrelevant because it is not the sound, but the meaning of the word that is significant.
    In that romantic context, the meaning is certainly not about a totally unknown man at the time the Song of Solomon was written (about 960 BC). Muhammad was born ... later ...! He was a man of whom the shepherdess could have had no knowledge whatsoever. And if she did, she would not have mentioned it while making love to another.
    Muslims who allege that the Song mentions Muhammad would not want us to introduce into their writings something entirely foreign and then base major teaching of the Trinity upon that literary distortion. If they would not want Jews or Christians to do that with Muslim writings, they ought not do that to the Song of Solomon.
    If Muslims need this type of fallacious argument, there must be serious concerns about whether Muhammad is a prophet, ...
    How much better for them to trust Jesus of Nazareth who fulfilled the roles of the final prophet, the one and only priest offering himself as the sacrifice for our sins and the king and Lord of all as he triumphed over sin, death and Satan and ascended to heaven where he was given all authority in heaven and earth (Matthew 28:18-20). See the many lines of evidence to support his claims, listed in Matthew 11:2-14; 1 Corinthians 15:1-7; Hebrews 2:1-4. Then read John 20:30-31.
     
    May you be led by the Spirit of truth,
     
    Dr. Gordon Lewis
    Senior Professor of Philosophy and Theology
    Denver Seminary
     
    [Other articles discussing this oft-repeated Muslim claim can be found here.]
     
    ....